Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Annex I
Asian Anatidae Atlas Project
Call for further information

March 1999

Conservation of birds largely depends on the conservation of natural habitats that the birds use through their annual cycle. Wetlands International with financial support from the Environment Agency of Japan has published an Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway to assist in the identification of internationally important sites for Anatidae (ducks, geese and swans). The Atlas reviews the distribution of Anatidae species in the region, defines population boundaries and identifies important sites for these species. The Atlas is a valuable reference for government conservation agencies, technical experts, NGOs and local communities seeking to learn more about important sites and of the gaps in our knowledge. The project is part of an international collaborative effort to regularly compile published and unpublished information to promote conservation of sites. Data collated by the project is being stored in a central database that is being updated on an ongoing basis (the attached table provides information on the structure of the database).

The next stage of the project will be to produce an atlas of internationally important sites for Anatidae for the Asian region. In geographic coverage, it will extend across Russia from the Ural Mountains east to Far East, Eastern, Central, Southern, and Southeastern Asia and Alaska (USA). The Atlas will define population flyway boundaries and identify important sites in the Asian region for Anatidae, and provide a brief description on each species.

Two basic criteria, compatible with the Ramsar criteria for identification of wetlands of international importance are being used to identify sites:
(a) 20,000 individuals of total number of Anatidae supported; and
(b) 1% of a population of an Anatidae species.

In order to incorporate all available data, we seek the co-operation and participation of people who possess this information. Published and unpublished information is needed to identify key sites for each species throughout its range and we seek the following data:

To find out more about the project, kindly contact the project co-ordinators.

Project Co-ordinators:
Yoshihiko Miyabayashi
Anatidae Flyway Officer
of Wetlands International - Japan,
JAWGP, Minamimachi 16,
Wakayanagi, 989-5502 Japan
TEL&FAX +81-228-32-2592
Taej Mundkur
Wetlands International - Asia Pacific,
3A39, 4th Floor, Block A
Kelana Centre Point, No 3, Jalan SS7/19
47300 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Tel: +60-3-704 6770
Fax: +60-3-707 6772

Database structure of Asian Anatidae Data for Atlas Project

To collate information on the Anatidae in Asia, a customised database has been developed by Wetlands International. The database is broadly compatible to the Asian Waterfowl Census database developed and operated by Wetlands International and is being used to store information of the census. The Anatidae Atlas database structure has been developed to permit use in a variety of commercially available software and has been tested on dBASE IV™, Microsoft Access™, and Microsoft Excel™.

The accompanying table provides a structure of the database. Abbreviations listed under Field Type refer to C - Character, N - Numeric, L - Logical, D - Date data fields.

Name of country
2 SITE C 40
Name of site
3 LATITUDE N 5 2 Degrees of latitude from the equator
Only select yes if site is south of the equator
5 LONGITUDE N 6 2 Degrees of longitude
Only select yes if site is in the Western Hemisphere
Sitecode for office purposes only (do not enter this field)
8 NUM N 6
Number for site (if a national code exists)
Criterion meeting data as:
  • "20000": >20,000
  • "1%": >1% of a population
  • "Anatid": important for all types of Anatidae
  • "goose": important for only Goose
  • "swans": important for only Swans
  • "ducks": important for only Ducks
  • "unfav": important for species with least favourable conservation status
10 SEASON C 20
wintering / staging / autumn / spring / breeding / moulting
11 NAME C 50
Species / subspecies scientific name for data
5 character code for office purposes only (do not enter this field)
13 COUNT N 8 0 Exact number of birds counted during a single count
14 DATE D 8
Exact count date of the single count
15 POPULATION N 8 0 Population size counted or estimated or averaged (based on more than one count)
16 DATAYEAR N 4 0 Year of counts / estimates
Month of counts / estimates
18 PERIOD C 15
Period of years if population size is estimated or averaged
19 AREA N 5 0 Area of site in hectares
Principle habitat type(s), list up to 4 types:
0 Open sea, bay, strait;
1 Estuary;
2 Brackish or saline lake, lagoon, salt pans;
3 River, stream, canal;
4 Freshwater marsh, flooded area;
5 Freshwater lake, pond;
6 Reservoir, barrage, tank;
7 Gravel pit;
8 Aquaculture pond (fish or shrimp);
9 Grassland, arable land;
A Mangrove, nipah;
B Freshwater swamp forest;
C Freshwater peat forest;
D Rocky beach/shore;
E Sandy beach/dune;
F Mudflat (tidal/river);
G Sewage farm/ponds;
H Saltmarsh;
L Delta;
U Peatland;
V Alpine/Tundra;
W Shrub dominated;
X Tree dominated;
Y Oases (springs)
Ownership Status:
1 fully protected,
2 partially protected,
3 not protected,
0 unknown
Protection Status:
1 by government,
2 by tradition,
3 private ownership,
4 unprotected,
0 unknown
Select yes only if site is a Ramsar site
24 REFNUM N 6 0 Number for published reference of data
Reference of data

Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Annex II
A Preliminary List of Key Sites that support at least 20,000 Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

A wetland is identified as being of international importance if it regularly supports 20,000 waterfowl (Ramsar Criterion 3a). This criterion refers to all waterfowl as defined by the Convention, including Anatidae. A preliminary list of key sites that support 20,000 or more individuals of Anatidae, comprising of one or more species identified in the Project is presented here. The list includes sites identified on the basis of single or more counts and estimates of the number of single or more Anatidae species. These sites are presented in the accompanying table and map.

Information on key sites presented in the table is as follows:

A preliminary list of key sites that support at least 20,000 Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway.
An asterisk mark indicates that the site is on the Ramsar List (as at 7 March 1999). A site with an asterisk mark in parenthesis indicates that the site contains within it, one or more area(s) on the Ramsar List.
Site Coordinates Protected Season Period Ref
Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta N6100W16500 Fully Breeding 1985-1998 Bowman et al. 1998
(*) Alaska Peninsula N5600W16100 Partially Staging 1981-1998 Petersen 1994,USFWS unpubl.
Lena River Delta N7300E12500 Partially Moulting 1980-1993 Degtyarev 1995
Yana-Indigirka Tundra N7130E14000 Partially Summering mid 1980s Degtyarev 1990
Wrangel Island N7130W17930 Fully Nesting 1997summer Baranyuk, V.V. pers.comm.
Yana River Delta N7130E14000 Partially Moulting 1980-1993 Degtyarev 1995
Indigirka & Alazeya Lowlands N7000E14830 Partially Moulting 1980-1993 Degtyarev 1995
Anadyr Lowlands N6500E17830 Partially Summering early 1990s Kondratyev 1992
Penzhina Valley N6215E16640 Partially Summering early1980s Gusakov 1988, Gerasimov & Gerasimov 1997b
* Karaginskiy Island NR N5852E16353 Fully Summering - Gerasimov 1995
Kharchinskoe Lake NR N5632E16011 Fully Staging - Gerasimov 1995
* Moroshechnaya River NR N5630E15610 Fully Summering - Gerasimov 1995
Shantar Islands N5430E13730   Staging 1991-1992 Roslyakov & Roslyakov 1996
Zhupanova Lagoon NR N5335E15950 Fully Summering - Gerasimov 1995
Pil'tun Bay N5310E14322   Summering 1990summer Poyarkov & Rozanov 1998
Lunskiy Bay N5128E14354   Autumn - Revyakina & Zykov 1996
* Zeya - Bureya Lowland N5030E12830 Partially Spring 1991-1994 Dugintsov 1996
* Lake Bolon N4948E13630 Partially Spring 1970s Bocharnikov & Shibaev 1996
Aniva Bay N4600E14200   Spring 1976-1992 Nechaev 1996
* Lake Khanka N4453E13226 Partially Spring - Bocharnikov & Shibaev 1996
Lower Tumangan River N4229E13054 Partially Spring 1961-1995 Litvinenko & Shibaev 1996
Korea, Republic of
Han gang Estuary N3744E12640 Partially Wintering 1992/93winter AWC
Sapkyo Lake N3653E12651 Not Wintering 1990-1996 AWC, Kim et al. 1996
Chonsu Lake N3640E12625 Partially Wintering 1992-1996 AWC, Kim et al. 1996
Nonsan Reservoir N3620E12710   Wintering 1995/96winter Kang & Cho 1996
Kum River N3604E12649 Not Wintering 1989-1996 AWC
Kum gang Estuary N3552E12640 Not Wintering 1994-1996 Kim et al. 1996, Kang & Cho 1996
Sannam, Junam &
Tongpan Reservoirs
N3518E12841 Partially Wintering 1987-1996 AWC, Kang & Cho 1996, Kim et al. 1996
Nakdong gang Estuary N3508E12854 Partially Wintering 1992/93winter Won 1995
* Lake Kuccharo-ko N4510E14220 Fully Staging - Hamatonbetsu Town pers. comm.
Lake Miyajimanuma N4320E14143 Not Staging - Miyabayashi 1994
* Lake Utonai-to N4242E14143 Fully Staging - Miyabayashi 1994
Mawarizeki Reservoir N4045E14020 Fully Wintering 1990-94 Abe et al. 1995
Otomonuma Reservoir N4010E14000 Partially Wintering - Miyabayashi 1994
River Mogami-gawa N3853E13952 Partially Wintering 1996/97winter EAJcount
Lakes Ooyama Kamiike & Shimoike N3845E13946 Fully Wintering 1996/97winter EAJcount
* Lakes Izunuma & Uchinuma N3843E14107 Fully Wintering 1990-1997 Abe et al. 1995, JAWGP unpubl.
Lake Kabukurinuma N3840E14110 Not Wintering 1996-1998 JAWGP unpubl.
Kahokugata Rice Fields N3638E13640 Partially Wintering 1996/97winter EAJcount
Tokyo Bay, Inner Area N3539E13955 Partially Wintering 1990-1997 Abe et al. 1995, EAJcount
Lake Nakaumi N3528E13311 Partially Wintering 1990-1997 Abe et al. 1995, EAJcount, SB-WBSJ 1998
Lake Shinji-ko N3526E13252 Partially Wintering 1996/97winter SB-WBSJ 1998
* Lake Biwa-ko N3515E13605 Partially Wintering 1989,94 Abe et al. 1995
Lake Hamana-ko N3445E13735 Partially Wintering 1997/98winter Shizuoka Pref. unpubl.
Shiokawa Tidalflats N3441E13717 Partially Wintering - Scott 1989
Sanjiang Provincial Nature Reserve N4755E13422 Fully Breeding/ Staging 1997-1998 Sanjiang NR unpubl.
Xingkai Hu N4515E13230 Fully Staging 1988spring Li et al. 1994
Nansi Hu N3453E11658 Fully Wintering - Scott 1989
Linhonghe Kou (Lianyungang Coast) N3430E11920 Fully Wintering 1991/92winter AWC
Jiangsu Coast N3400E12030 Fully Wintering 1990/91winter AWC
Sheyang Salt Works N3341E12032 Fully Wintering 1991/92winter AWC
Yancheng Shore N3330E12015 Fully Wintering 1989-1993 AWC
Hongze Hu N3320E11830 Partially Wintering 1989/90winter AWC
* Dongting Hu N2911E11225 Partially Wintering 1991-1997 AWC, Lei, G. et al. unpubl.
* Poyang Lake N2854E11616 Fully Wintering 1987-1990 AWC
Caohai Nature Reserve N2650E10415 Fully Wintering 1992/93winter AWC
* Mai Po and Deep Bay wetlands N2232E11400 Fully Wintering 1993-1997 Young L pers.comm.
Beung Boraphet N1542E10015 Fully Wintering 1990/91winter AWC
Cha-Vak Lake N1455E10004 Fully Wintering 1993/94winter AWC
Kasetsart University (Kampaengsaen) N1350E10005   Wintering 1989/90winter AWC
Dong Thap Muoi in Mekong Delta N1047E10540 Partially Wintering 1987/88winter Scott 1989
Tram Chin Nature Reserve N0940E10540 Fully Wintering 1992/93winter AWC
Inle Lake N2010E09702 Not Wintering 1989/90winter AWC

Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway


A workshop to develop an Action Plan for Anatidae during the 1995 Northeast Asia and North Pacific Environment Forum, Kushiro, Japan, 25-29 September 1995, marked the beginning of regular information exchange on the status of Anatidae populations in the East Asian Flway. National reports from the most of the range countries were presented at the workshop and were made by: Schagdarsuren BOLDBAATAR (Mongolian Ornithological Foundation); Jianjian LU (East China Normal University); U-Il PAK (Center for Natural Protection, D.P.R. Korea); Pyong-Oh WON (Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea); and Manabu ABE (Wetlands International - Japan).

Since the workshop, during the course of drafting an Action Plan and a proposal for an Anatidae Site Network in the East Asian Flyway, many reports have been received from Anatidae specialist in the flyway: Dirk V. Derksen and the staff of Alaska Biological Science Center, USGS-BRD; Alexander V. Andreev & Alexander V. Kondratyev (Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Magadan); Nikolay N. Gerasimov & Yuri N. Gerasimov (Kamchatka Institute of Ecology); Evgeny E. Syroechkovski Jr. (Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscow) and the members of Goose and Swan Study Group of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia; Jin-Han KIM & Jin-Young PARK (Forestry Research Institute, Republic of Korea); and David S. Melville & Lew Young (WWF Hong Kong).

These reports have formed the basis for compiling information on the status of Anatidae populations on a flyway basis. So the authors would like to record their special thanks to these experts for their contribution.

The authors would like to thank the Wetlands International Specialist Group coordinators, Asian Waterfowl Census national co-ordinators and species experts who responded to our requests for assistance so enthusastically, and provided quality information.

The Specialist Group coordinators were Stefan Pihl (National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark, for the Seaduck Specialist Group; Jeff Kirby (Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust (WWT)) for the Duck Specialist Group; Bart S. Ebbinge (DLO-Instituut voor Bos- en Natuuronderzoek) for the Goose Specialist Group; Eileen C. Rees (WWT) for the Swan Specialist Group; and Andy Green and Baz Hughes (WWT) for the Threatened Waterfowl Specialist Group.

Efforts of all national coordinators of the montoring schemes that supply information as part of Asian Waterfowl Census (AWC) are acknowledged. This data is essential to the production of international overviews like this Atlas. The hard work and contributions of all the AWC volunteers who had undertaken tremendous work, often under the most difficult of conditions is the basis of this information. All their efforts are greatly appreciated.

Comments and hitherto unpublished information of the highest possible standard were received from a great number of experts and we are grateful for their support: Manabu ABE, Seiichi ABE, John Ø. Albertsen, Alexander V. Andreev, Kenji ARIMA, Vasily V. Baranyuk, Jeb Barzen, Dashnamjilyn BATDELGER, Vladimir N. Bocharnikov, Schagdarsuren BOLDBAATAR, Geoff Carey, Bazarsadyn CHIMED-OCHIR, Jong Ryol CHONG, Carlo Custodio, Dirk V. Derksen, Bart S. Ebbinge, Koh'ichi ENDO, Igor V. Fefelov, Rokuro FUJII, Yuzo FUJIMAKI, B. GANBOLD, Nikolay N. Gerasimov, Yuri N. Gerasimov, Nikolai Germogenov, Prakash Gole, Andy Green, Masaharu HATAKEYAMA, Sang-Hoon HAN, Hideyuki HIJIKATA, Takaaki HOSAKA, Baz Hughes, Janet Hunter, Hiroshi IIJIMA, Hiroshi KAWACHI, Sergei P. Kharitonov, Jin-Han KIM, Shinsuke KIMURA, Jeff Kirby, Ken'ichiro KONDO, Alexander V. Kondratyev, Arsieny V. Krechmar, Kunihiko KUDO, Sadahiro KUSANO, Simon J. Lane, Gang LEI, Wenfa LI, Xiao Min LI, Konstantin E. Litvin, Jianjian LU, Yiqing MA, Takeyoshi MATSUO, David S. Melville, Masahiro MIYAZAKI, Tomoo MIZUTANI, Nial Moores, Vladimir Morozov, Masayuki MURAI, Akio NAGATO, Takashi NISHIDE, Yus Rusila Noor, Kazuhiro OHDATE, Koji OH'HATA, Tomoko OSAKA, U-Il PAK, Jin-Young PARK, Margaret Petersen, Stefan Pihl, Nikolay D. Poyarkov, Vladimir I. Pozdnyakov, Fawen QIAN, Eileen C. Rees, Helena V. Rogacheva, Fumio SATO, Hitoshi SATO, Takashi SAWADA, Joel A. Schmutz, Hisashi SUGAWA, Fumio SUGIMORI, Takuo SUGISAWA, Damdingiin SUMIYA, Evgeny E. Syroechkovski Sr., Evgeny E. Syroechkovski Jr., Evgeny V. Syroechkovski, Harutaka TAKUBO, Hidenori TOH'JO, Kimimasa TOKIKUNI, Kenzo TOMIYA, Natsagdorjiin TSEVEENMYADAG, David H. Ward, Hisashi WATANABE, Pyong-Oh WON, Hiroko YAMAMOTO, Sergei Yerokhov, A.K. Yurlov, Lew Young and Christoph Zöckler.

National compilations of key sites for Anatidae from selected Central and South Asian countries will be used in developing the next stage of the Atlas project - an Asian Anatidae Atlas. Accounts for India (by Asad Rahmani and M. Zafar-ul Islam); Uzbekistan (Elena A. Kreuzberg-Mukhina, Daniil Yu Kashkarov, Yevgenia N. Lanovenko, Olim P. Nazarov and Elmurat Shernazarov); and Pakistan (Ahmad Khan) received to date have been used in this Atlas. We are grateful to all these experts for allowing us to use their unpublished summaries.

Tim and Carol Inskipp very kindly provided a complimentary copy of the very fine new publication Birds of the Indian Subcontinent, that arrived the week before this publication goes to print. Species distribution maps and other information contained in the book have been most helpful in determining the range of species in this region.

The authors would like to thank logistic supported for the East Asian project by: Paul M. Rose, Simon Delany, Cecilia Reyes, Scott Frazier, Marcel Silvius & Olga Anisimova (Wetlands International - Africa, Europe, Middle East); Paul M. Rose (Joint Nature Conservation Committee, UK); Des Callaghan & Baz Hughes (WWT); Rebecca D'Cruz (Ramsar Convention Bureau); Bert Lenten (AEWA Secretariat); Douglas Hykle (UNEP/CMS Secretariat); Derek A. Scott; Doug Watkins (Wetlands International - Oceania); Simba CHAN (Wetlands International - Japan / Wild Bird Society of Japan); Kelin CHEN and Yuan Jun (Wetlands International - China Programme).

The authors are most grateful to Seng Yam LIM for painstakingly producing the species maps (under very difficult circumstances) and mastered a new mapping software in the process. The authors would like to thank the members of the Japanese Association for Wild Geese Protection for supporting the project and this publication including input of data: Toshihiro HOSOI, Toshio IKEUCHI, Shigeki IWABUCHI, Masayuki KURECHI, Yutaka SABANO, Mayumi SATO, Tetsuo SHIMADA and Sachiko UEMURA.

Joost van der Ven (previous Interim Director of Wetlands International - Asia Pacific) provided enthusiastic support for this project. Staff of Wetlands International - Asia Pacific assisted in a number of ways: Koji TAGI provided information, Ayu Rahayu assisted in editing the publication, and others provided support and encouragement throughout. Kaori MATSUI, Miki SASAKI and Naoko TAKENAKA of Wetlands International - Japan for the secretarial and administrative tasks.

Financial support for undertaking the Atlas project along with the Action Plan and Site Network Proposal for the Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway and for the production of this publication was kindly provided by the Environment Agency of Japan and orgainsed by Kojiro MORI and Fumiko NAKAO. The authors would like to thank them for their significant contribution towards the conservation of Anatidae in the Flyway.

A financial contribution to the project was made available by Wetlands International - Asia Pacific and we are thankful to Joost van der Ven and Arthur Mitchell for providing this support.

TM would like to record his extreme gratitude to Samhita and our children, Arnav and Aseem for encouraging and managing to do without him for several days and nights at a time to permit completion of this project. Samhita kindly assisted by editing parts of the report.


Yoshihiko Miyabayashi and Taej Mundkur

© Wetlands International, 1999
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This publication should be cited as
Miyabayashi, Y. and Mundkur, T. 1999. Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway. Wetlands International - Japan, Tokyo, and Wetlands International - Asia Pacific, Kuala Lumpur.

The presentation of material in this book and the geographical designations employed do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Wetlands International concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.