Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Ferruginous Duck
Aythya nyroca


Classification

Monotypic. Vulnerable (IUCN 1996, Green 1996).

Distribution

Palearctic, with a fragmented breeding distribution at temperate latitudes (north to about 54N) in the steppe, desert and southern forest zones from western Europe and northwest Africa across central Asia to western China (Xinjiang and northern Szechuan) and western Mongolia. In Eastern Eurasia, winters in Southern, Southeastern (south to Thailand), and southern China.

Movements

Migratory, breeding in Central Asia to western Mongolia and wintering in Pakistan to southern China.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised in Eastern Eurasia (Perennou et al. 1994) wintering in: (1) Southern / Southeastern / Eastern Asia.

Population size

Table of key sites [globally threatened taxa including sites supporting 'appreciable assemblage']
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
China
Lanzhou N3500E10300 Wintering 16 1994/95winter 11 AWC
Sanxikou Rese. N2910E10540 Wintering 35 1991/92winter 11 AWC
Caohai Nature Reserve N2650E10415 Wintering 2000 1992/93winter 5 WSGCOA 1994
Erhai Lake N2547E10011 Wintering 10 1988/89winter 11 AWC
Bamen Bays N2000E11030 Wintering 11 1987/88winter 11 AWC
Thailand
Nong Bong Khai N2015E10003 Wintering 10 1995/96winter 11 AWC
Myanmar
Yit Lake N2126E09600 Wintering 40 1992/93winter 11 AWC
Minhla-Nyaung Lake N2050E09602 Wintering 719 1992/93winter 11 AWC
Letme N2035E09440 Wintering 21 1988/89winter 11 AWC
Inle Lake N2010E09702 Wintering 121 1987/88winter 11 AWC
Yewai Lake
Wintering 125 1990/91winter 11 AWC


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Baer's Pochard
Aythya baeri


Classification

Monotypic. Vulnerable (IUCN 1996, Green 1996).

Distribution

Eastern Palearctic, breeding in southern Russian Far East and northeastern China and wintering in southern China, Southeastern Asia south to Thailand and northeastern India.

Movements

Migratory, breeding in temperate latitudes and wintering in lower latitudes.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised, viz. the entire population of the species.

Population size

Table of key sites [globally threatened taxa including sites supporting 'appreciable assemblage']
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Russia
Lower Tumangan River N4229E13054 Breeding 70 early 1970s 11 Litvinenko & Shibaev 1996
China
Dongqilihai N3920E11740 Wintering 80 1990/91winter 11 AWC
Beidagang N3840E11730 Wintering 200 1990/91winter 11 AWC
Qing Dao N3610E12010 Wintering 2000 1990/91winter 11 AWC
San Men Xia Reservoir
(Swans Nature Reserve)
N3448E11112 Wintering 210 1994/95winter 11 AWC
Heigangkuo (Yellow River Delta) N3408E11404 Wintering 167 1994/95winter 11 AWC
Jiangsu Coast N3400E12030 Wintering 1620 1990/91winter 11 AWC
Yancheng Shore N3330E12015 Wintering 330 1992/93winter 10 AWC
Dongtai Liulishe N3240E12050 Wintering 64 1991/92winter 11 AWC
Gaoyou And Shabo Lakes N3235E11920 Wintering 450 1989/90winter 11 AWC
Chen Hu Lake N3031E11405 Wintering 100 1987/88winter 11 AWC
Hannan Hu (One of the Wuhan Lakes) N3020E11350 Wintering 140 1989/90winter 11 AWC
Changshou Rese. N2950E10700 Wintering 81 1991/92winter 11 AWC
Daxi + Xiaoxi + Chai Shang Lakes N2927E11250 Wintering 213 1995/96winter 11 AWC
East Dongting Hu Nature Reserve N2911E11225 Wintering 170 1995/96winter 1 Lei & Qian 1998
Sanxikou Rese. N2910E10540 Wintering 250 1991/92winter 11 AWC
Poyang Lake N2854E11616 Wintering 200 1987/88winter 11 AWC
Thailand
Beung Khong Long N1759E10401 Wintering 59 1988/89winter 11 AWC
Nong Nam Khao Non-Hunting Area
(Ban Hung Dua)
N1646E10006 Wintering 170 1987/88winter 11 AWC
Beung Boraphet N1542E10015 Wintering 426 1987/88winter 1 AWC
Myanmar
Yit Lake N2126E09600 Wintering 90 1989/90winter 11 AWC
Minhla-Nyaung Lake N2050E09602 Wintering 134 1992/93winter 11 AWC
Mong Pai N2000E09700 Wintering 150 1994/95winter 11 AWC
Yewai Lake
Wintering 512 1990/91winter 10 AWC


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Tufted Duck
Aythya fuligula


Classification

Monotypic.

Distribution

Palearctic, with a wide breeding distribution across northern Eurasia from Iceland to the Bering Sea, generally between 45N and 70N. In Eastern Eurasia, the species breeds widely across Siberia to Russian Far East, and winters in Southern, Southeastern (south to Thailand), and Eastern Asia.

Movements

Partially migratory, the main breeding area of the species wintering in Southeastern and Eastern Asia is situated between eastern Siberia and the Far East.

Population limits

No discrete populations are identifiable (Perennou et al. 1994) and two wintering groups are recognised in Eastern Eurasia: (1) Southern Asia; and (2) Southeastern and Eastern Asia. This was followed by Rose & Scott (1997) and is adopted here.

Population size

Table of key sites
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Russia
Selenga Delta in Lake Baikal N5217E10622 Staging 6800 1989-1996autumn 11 Fefelov et al. 1998
Korea, Republic of
Nakdong Estuary N3508E12855 Wintering 11892 1987/88winter 11 AWC
Japan
Lake Nakaumi N3528E13311 Wintering 23604 1996/97winter 5 SB-WBSJ 1998
Lake Shinji-ko N3526E13252 Wintering 21062 1996/97winter 5 SB-WBSJ 1998
Lake Biwa-ko N3515E13605 Wintering 13480 1989,94 11 Abe et al. 1995
China
Xingkai Hu N4515E13230 Wintering 11000 - 11 Scott 1989
Philippines
Naujan Lake National Park N1309E12122 Wintering - - 11 Custodio, C. pers. comm.


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Greater Scaup
Aythya marila


Classification

Polytypic. Two subspecies are generally recognised: the nominate form of northern Europe and northwestern Asia, and mariloides of northeastern Asia and North America. Some authors recognise a third form, nearctica, for North American birds.

Distribution

Holarctic; the most northerly of the Aythya species in summer and winter, breeding at high latitudes across northern Eurasia and North America and wintering south to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas, Eastern Asia and the southern USA. Only the subspecies mariloides occurs in Eastern Eurasia. It breeds in Russian Arctic east of about the Lena Delta and east to Kamchatka, and winters in Eastern Asia.

Movements

Migratory; wintering in coastal area along the Japanese Archipelago, Yellow, East and South China Seas. Several banded birds wintering in Japan have been recovered in the valleys of Indigirka and Kolyma in Russian Far East (BMRCYIO 1985).

Population limits

Only one population is recognised in Eastern Eurasia.

Population size

Table of key sites
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Russia
Anadyr Lowlands N6500E17830 Summering 20000 early 1990s 11 Kondratyev 1992
Japan
Notsuke Bay N4335E14518 Staging 7842 1985-92 11 Abe et al. 1995
Lake Furen-ko N4315E14514 Staging 19076 1986-92 11 Abe et al. 1995
Tokyo Bay - Sanbanze Mudflat N3531E13949 Wintering 100000 1990-94 11 Abe et al. 1995
Tokyo Bay, Tokyo Prefecture area N3531E13949 Wintering 49013 1990-93 11 Abe et al. 1995
Lake Nakaumi N3528E13311 Wintering 15342 1996/97winter 1 SB-WBSJ 1998
Lake Shinji-ko N3526E13252 Wintering 17461 1996/97winter 10 SB-WBSJ 1998
Tokyo Bay - Futtsu Sandspit N3519E13945 Wintering 6585 1990-94 11 Abe et al. 1995
River Yahagi-gawa N3459E13705 Wintering 4000 1996/97winter 11 EAJcount
Lake Hamana-ko N3445E13735 Wintering 5600 1997/98winter 10 Shizuoka Pref. unpubl.
Iwata-ike Reservoir N3442E13631 Wintering 5800 1996/97winter 11 EAJcount
Shiokawa Tidalflats N3441E13717 Wintering 55000 - 11 Scott 1989
Kasaoka Bay N3429E13328 Wintering 3312 1996/97winter 11 EAJcount
Hakata Bay - Wajiro area N3336E13015 Wintering 6620 1991-94 11 Abe et al. 1995
Isahaya Bay N3252E13010 Wintering 18250 1996/97winter 11 EAJcount


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Common Eider
Somateria mollissima


Classification

Polytypic. Six subspecies have been described: the nominate form from northwest Europe east to Novaya Zemlya; S.m. faroeensis from the Faroe Islands; S.m. borealis from northeastern Canada through Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard to Franz Josef Land; S.m. v-nigra in northeastern Asia and northwestern North America; S.m. dresseri on the Atlantic coast of North America from Maine to Labrador; and S.m. sedentaria in the Hudson Bay area, Canada.

Distribution

Holarctic, breeding at high latitudes across northern Eurasia and North America and wintering mainly within the breeding range. Only one subspecies occurs in Eastern Eurasia. S.m. v-nigra breeds on Russian Arctic coast from Novosibirski Islands to the coast of the Bering and Okhotsk Sea, Komandorski Islands and Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea coast of Alaska and Beaufort Sea coast east to Victoria Island, Canada. It winters mainly in the Bering Sea coast of Russia and Alaska, USA.

Movements

Partially migratory. The Pacific form, v-nigra, mainly migratory to winter in the Bering Sea coast from the breeding area in northeastern Russia and northwestern North America.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised in Eastern Eurasia, viz. the entire population of the Pacific form, v-nigra.

Population size

Table of key sites
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Russia
Southern Coast of Chukot Peninsula N6430W17500 Wintering 10000 1980s 11 Konyukhov 1998


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

King Eider
Somateria spectabilis


Classification

Monotypic.

Distribution

Holarctic, breeding at high latitudes across northern Eurasia and North America and wintering south to Iceland, Norway, Kamchatka, the Aleutian Islands and Newfoundland. In Eastern Eurasia, it breeds on the Arctic coast of Russia and winters in Kamchatka. Formerly common on the Kuril Islands in winter.

Movements

Migratory, breeding on the Arctic coast and wintering at lower latitudes.

Population limits

Rose & Scott (1997) recognised one population in Eastern Asia. It breeds on the Arctic coast of Russia from Taimyr to the Chukot Peninsula and winters on Pacific coast south to Kamchatka.

Population size

Key sites

No key site was identified from the data obtained.

Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Spectacled Eider
Somateria fischeri


Classification

Monotypic. Vulnerable (IUCN 1996) / Endangered (Green 1996).

Distribution

Confined to northeastern Eurasia and northwestern North America, breeding on the Arctic Coast of Russia from Lena Delta to Chukot Peninsula and on the coast of Alaska from Yukon - Kuskokwim Delta to Colville Delta, USA, and wintering in Bering Sea.

Movements

Migratory. The precise winter quarters remain unknown but are presumed to be mainly in the Bering Sea migrating from the breeding area.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised, viz. the entire population of the species.

Population size

Key sites

No key site was identified from the data obtained.

Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Steller's Eider
Polysticta stelleri


Classification

Monotypic. Vulnerable (IUCN 1996, Green 1996).

Distribution

Holarctic, breeding on Arctic coasts from the Yamal Peninsula in Russia east to northern Alaska. Birds breeding in northeastern Siberia east of the Khatanga Gulf (100E) to northern Alaska winter in the southern Bering Sea south to Kuril Islands, while birds breeding west of Khatanga Gulf migrate west to winter in Norwegian and Russian waters and the Baltic.

Movements

Migratory, wintering southern Bering Sea (Alaska, Aleutian Islands, Kamchatka) and Kuril Islands to the eastern tip of Hokkaido Island, Japan.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised in Eastern Eurasia to Alaska.

Population size

Table of key sites [globally threatened taxa including sites supporting 'appreciable assemblage']
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Russia
Yana-Indigirka Tundra N7130E14000 Summering - - 11 Syroechkovski Jr. & Zockler 1997
Laguna Puutin N6600W17030 Moulting 4250 1985summer 11 Konyukhov 1998
Laguna Tkachen N6430W17300 Moulting 755 1985summer 11 Konyukhov 1998


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Harlequin Duck
Histrionicus histrionicus


Classification

Polytypic. Two subspecies have been described: the nominate form centred on the North Atlantic, and H. h. pacificus centred on the North Pacific. The validity of pacificus has been questioned, e.g. Madge & Burn (1988).

Distribution

Holarctic, breeding in two widely separated areas: around the North Atlantic in northeast Canada, Greenland and Iceland, and in Eastern Asia and northwestern North America from Lake Baikal eastwards to the Aleutian Islands and Alaska, and south to Colorado, USA. The species winters mainly along seacoasts qadjacent to its breeding range.

Movements

Not truly migratory, in winter most disperses along seacoasts within breeding range. In Eastern Eurasia, breeding in eastern Siberia to Russian Far East and south to northern Honshu Island of Japan,, and wintering in the coastal areas of the Okhotsk, Japan, Yellow, East China seas and Pacific.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised in Eastern Eurasia.

Population size

Table of key sites
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Russia
Southern Coast of
Chukot Peninsula
N6430W17500 Moulting 3500 1985,87summer 11 Konyukhov 1998
Shantar Islands N5430E13730 Breeding 3000 1991-1992 11 Roslyakov & Roslyakov 1996


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Long-tailed Duck
Clangula hyemalis


Classification

Monotypic.

Distribution

Holarctic, with an extensive breeding range in the high latitudes across northern Eurasia and North America. The wintering range extends south to Britain, South Carolina and Washington in the USA, and Eastern Asia. In Eastern Eurasia, it breeds in Arctic coast of Russia, and winters in the Far East and Eastern Asia.

Movements

Migratory, wintering at sea in the northern regions; Seas of Okhotsk and Japan, northern Pacific along Kamchatka south to Hokkaido Island, Japan.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised in Eastern Eurasia.

Population size

Key sites

No key site was identified from the data obtained.