Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Common Scoter
Melanitta nigra


Classification

Polytypic. Two subspecies have been described: the nominate form in Western Eurasia and M. n. americana in North America and Eastern Asia. These sometimes treated as separate species.

Distribution

Holarctic, breeding at high latitudes across northern Eurasia and in northeastern and northwestern North America. The wintering range extends south to northwest Africa, Eastern Asia and the southern USA. Only the subspecies americana occur in Eastern Eurasia. It breeds east of the Lena Delta (125E) in the Russian Arctic, and winters in the coastal areas of the Far East and Eastern Asia.

Movements

Migratory, wintering in the coastal areas of Sea of Japan and Pacific along Kamchatka in Russia south to Japan.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised in Eastern Eurasia.

Population size

Network of key sites

No key site was identified from the data obtained.

Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Velvet Scoter
Melanitta fusca


Classification

Polytypic. Three subspecies are generally recognised: the nominate form in Western Eurasia, M. f. stejnegeri in Eastern Asia, and M. f. deglandi in North America. Some authors give full specific status to stejnegeri and deglandi under the name deglandi.

Distribution

Holarctic, breeding across northern Eurasia and North America, with an isolated mainly sedentary population in Southwestern Asia. The wintering range extends south to western Europe, Eastern Asia and southern USA. Only the subspecies stejnegeri occurs in Eastern Eurasia, breeding in Siberia east of Yenisey River (85E) across to Russian Far East, and wintering in the coastal area in the Far East and Eastern Asia.

Movements

Migratory, wintering in the coastal areas of the Japan, Yellow, East and South China seas, and the Pacific along Kamchatka in Russia south to Japan.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised in Eastern Eurasia, viz. the entire population of the subspecies.

Population size

Table of key sites
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Russia
Pil'tun Bay N5310E14322 Summering 40000 1990summer 11 Poyarkov & Rozanov 1998


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Common Goldeneye
Bucephala clangula


Classification

Polytypic. Two subspecies have been described: the nominate form from Eurasia, and B. c. americana from North America, although the differences are slight and the validity of americana has been questioned.

Distribution

Holarctic, with a wide breeding distribution across northern Eurasia and North America. The wintering range extends south to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas, East Asia and the southern USA. Only the nominate subspecies occurs in Eastern Eurasia, breeding across Siberia to Russian Far East, Mongolia and northeast China, and wintering in the Far East and Eastern Asia. Small numbers occur regularly in Southern Asia (up to about 25N).

Movements

Migratory, wintering mainly at sea in the northern parts of its winter range but also on large rivers, lakes, reservoirs and coastal lagoons in southern parts. In Eastern Eurasia, winters largely in eastern China, Korea, Japan and the coast of Kamchatka in Russia.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised in Eastern Eurasia.

Population size

Table of key sites
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Russia
Shantar Islands N5430E13730 Summering 1000 1991-1992 11 Roslyakov & Roslyakov 1996
Selenga Delta in Lake Baikal N5217E10622 Staging 8600 1989-1996autumn 11 Fefelov et al. 1998
Mongolia
Holboo Nuur N4908E09708 Summering 1200 1977summer 11 Kitson 1978
Japan
Notsuke Bay N4335E14518 Staging 2360 1985-92 11 Abe et al. 1995
Lake Furen-ko N4315E14514 Staging 1517 1986-92 11 Abe et al. 1995
China
Xingkai Hu N4515E13230 Wintering 11000 - 11 Scott 1989
Qing Dao N3610E12010 Wintering 500 1990/91winter 11 AWC
Heigangkuo
(Yellow River Delta)
N3408E11404 Wintering 720 1993/94winter 11 AWC
Yancheng Shore N3330E12015 Wintering 556 1989/90winter 11 AWC


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Smew
Mergellus albellus


Classification

Monotypic.

Distribution

Palearctic, with a wide breeding distribution across northern Eurasia from Norway to Kamchatka. The wintering range normally extends south to the North, Black and Caspian Seas, and China. In Eastern Eurasia, breeding in Siberia across to Russian Far East, and wintering in Eastern Asia.

Movements

Migratory, wintering in China, Korea and Japan.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised in Eastern Eurasia.

Population size

Table of key sites
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Russia
Selenga Delta in Lake Baikal N5217E10622 Staging 3000 1989-1996autumn 11 Fefelov et al. 1998
Lake Bolon N4948E13630 Spring 10000 1970s 11 Bocharnikov & Shibaev 1996
Korea, Republic of
Han River Estuary N3744E12640 Wintering 454 1994/95winter 11 AWC
Chonsu Lake N3640E12625 Wintering 743 1991/92winter 11 AWC
China
Beidagang N3840E11730 Wintering 1150 1990/91winter 11 AWC
Linhonghe Kou (Lianyungang Coast) N3430E11920 Wintering 970 1991/92winter 11 AWC
Guandong Salt Works N3423E12008 Wintering 1622 1994/95winter 11 AWC
Sheyang Salt Works N3341E12032 Wintering 1572 1991/92winter 5 AWC
Yancheng Shore N3330E12015 Wintering 1110 1992/93winter 11 AWC
Yancheng Nature Reserve N3329E12040 Wintering 1572 1995/96winter 11 AWC


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Red-breasted Merganser
Mergus serrator


Classification

Polytypic. Two subspecies have been described: the nominate form is circumpolar except for west Greenland, where the form M. s. schioleri occurs (the validity of this form has been questioned).

Distribution

Holarctic, with a wide breeding range across northern Eurasia and North America. The wintering range extends south to the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas, Eastern Asia and Mexico. Only the nominate form occurs in Eastern Eurasia, breeding in Siberia and the Far East, and wintering in Eastern Asia.

Movements

Partially migratory; population in Eastern Eurasia are migratory, wintering in China, Korea and Japan.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised in Eastern Eurasia.

Population size

Table of key sites
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Korea, Republic of
Nakdong Estuary N3508E12855 Wintering 573 1990/91winter 11 AWC


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Scaly-sided Merganser
Mergus squamatus


Classification

Monotypic. Vulnerable (IUCN 1996) / Endangered ( Green 1996).

Distribution

Confined to Eastern Asia, breeding in southern Russian Far East, northeastern China and Korea, and wintering south to northern Southeastern Asia.

Movements

Partially migratory; merely moving to lower reaches of the rivers in the breeding area in winter, with some dispersing more widely to central and southern China, Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand, occasionally Japan.

Population limits

Only one population is recognised, viz. the entire population of the species.

Population size

Table of key sites [globally threatened taxa including sites supporting 'appreciable assemblage']
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Russia
Bikin River Basin N4638E13613 Breeding 350 late 1980s 11 Bocharnikov & Shibnyev 1994
Iman River Basin N4600E13400 Breeding 300 1989-1991 11 Surmach & Zaykin 1994
Central Sikhote-Alin Mountains N4500E13700 Breeding 68 1957-1990 11 Yelsukov 1994
China
Changbaishan Nature Reserve N4200E12810 Breeding 100 1989-1991 11 Zhao et al. 1994b
Jiangsu Coast N3400E12030 Wintering 12 1990/91winter 11 AWC
Yancheng Nature Reserve N3329E12040 Wintering 18 1995/96winter 11 AWC
Gaoyou And Shabo Lakes N3235E11920 Wintering 17 1989/90winter 11 AWC
Chanjiang River
Wintering 16 1990/91winter 11 AWC


Atlas of Key Sites for Anatidae in the East Asian Flyway

Goosander
Mergus merganser


Classification

Polytypic. Three subspecies are recognised: the nominate form in northern Eurasia; M. m. orientalis in Central Asia from northeast Afghanistan to western China; and M. m. americanus in North America. The form comatus, listed by some authors for Central Asia, is now considered to be synonymous with orientalis.

Distribution

Holarctic, with a wide breeding range across Eurasia and North America in forested tundra between 50N and the Arctic Circle. The wintering range extends south to southern Europe, the Middle East, northern India, eastern China and the southern USA. Two subspecies occur in Eastern Eurasia: the nominate form breeding in Siberia across to the Russian Far East, Mongolia and northern China; and M. m. orientalis breeding at high altitudes in the mountains of Central Asia from northeastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan and India to across Xizang in China. Both winter in Southern and Eastern Asia, south to about 20N.

Movements

Partially migratory; northern breeders winter at lower latitudes; and southern breeders mainly sedentary. In Eastern Eurasia, two breeding populations of different subspecies seem to greatly overlap in the wintering range in Pakistan, northern India, the Himalayas, China, Korea and Japan, but this is still to be confirmed.

Population limits

The wintering area of two subspecies, the nominate form and orientalis, considerably overlaps, and no precise data of population size of each subspecies has been obtained in the wintering area. Perennou et al. (1994) recognised two wintering groups in Eastern Eurasia: (1) Southern Asia; and (2) Eastern Asia. This was followed by Rose & Scott (1997) with the name of subspecies comatus and orientalis, respectively. These two wintering groups are retained for the practical reasons.

Population size

Table of key sites
Site Coordinates Season Population/
Count
Period/Date Importance
code
Ref
Russia
Shantar Islands N5430E13730 Summering 1000 1991-1992 11 Roslyakov & Roslyakov 1996
Korea, Republic of
Han gang Estuary N3744E12641 Wintering 1331 1995-1996 11 Kim et al. 1996
Middle Han gang, Seoul N3731E12658 Wintering 6744 1991-1996 1 Kim et al. 1996
China
Miyun Rese. N4030E11700 Wintering 700 1991/92winter 11 AWC
Beidagang N3840E11730 Wintering 900 1990/91winter 11 AWC
Linhonghe Kou (Lianyungang Coast) N3430E11920 Wintering 1160 1991/92winter 11 AWC
Guandong Salt Works N3423E12008 Wintering 2253 1990/91winter 5 AWC
Jiangsu Coast N3400E11940 Wintering 1400 1990/91winter 11 AWC
Sheyang Salt Works N3341E12032 Wintering 1380 1993/94winter 8 AWC
Yancheng Shore N3330E12015 Wintering 4983 1992/93winter 11 AWC
Yancheng Nature Reserve N3329E12040 Wintering 4909 1995/96winter 11 AWC
Dongsha Islands N3325E12040 Wintering 3400 1994/95winter 11 AWC
Caohai Nature Reserve N2650E10415 Wintering 2000 1990/91winter 11 AWC